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The Hazards of Biofuels - December 2016

As a fast-growing part of the energy sector, the biofuel industry has become an attractive place to work and invest. To protect your company in the biofuel industry, it is essential to recognize potential workplace hazards of biofuels and their production processes, and take steps to protect workers from harm. In addition to common workplace hazards such as walking and working surface hazards and electrical hazards, biofuels present three major types of hazards:

  • Fire and explosion hazards
  • Chemical reactivity hazards
  • Toxicity hazards

Types of Biofuels

There are two major types of biofuels:

  1. Ethanol is a flammable liquid that is readily ignited at ordinary temperatures. Renewable ethanol is produced through the fermentation of grains or from materials such as waste paper, wood chips and agricultural wastes.
  2. Biodiesel is a combustible liquid that burns readily when heated. When it is blended with petroleum-based diesel fuel or contaminated by materials in manufacturing, it can become more flammable.

Fire and Explosion Hazards

To protect workers, it is essential to prevent unintended releases, avoid ignition of spills and equip your facility with appropriate fire protection systems and emergency response procedures. Necessary engineering controls include:

  • Good facility layout
  • Proper design of vessels and piping systems
  • Proper selection of electrical equipment for use in hazardous areas
  • Adequate equipment such as alarms, interlocks and shutdown systems.

Creating and maintaining proper administrative controls is equally important. These might include the following:

  • Operating procedures
  • Good maintenance practices
  • Safe work procedures

Chemical Reactivity Hazards

Some processes for making ethanol from materials such as wastepaper and wood chips use concentrated acids and bases, which can react vigorously with many materials. Failure to control potentially dangerous chemical reactions could result in rupture of equipment

and piping, explosions, fires, and exposures to hazardous chemicals. Preventive measures include:

  • Controlling the rate and order of chemical addition
  • Providing robust cooling
  • Segregating incompatible materials to prevent inadvertent mixing
  • Creating detailed operating procedures

Toxicity Hazards

Biofuels and their components present toxic exposure hazards that you need to carefully control to protect workers. Consult each chemical component’s safety data sheet (SDS) to determine the potential for toxic exposures to feedstocks, products and other chemicals used in biofuel processes, including caustic, sulfuric acid, ethanol and biodiesel, as well as hydrocarbons used for blending and alcohol denaturing. Take the following measures to reduce risk:

  • Take release prevention, ventilation and drainage into consideration during design, fabrication and the creation of maintenance practices.
  • Require the use of appropriate personal protective equipment when needed.

OSHA Standards

There are a variety of Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards that apply to manufacturers of biofuels, including:

  • Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals
  • Flammable and Combustible Liquids
  • Hazard Communication
  • Personal Protective Equipment
  • Respiratory Protection
  • Permit-Required Confined Spaces
  • Lockout/Tagout

If there are hazards in your workplace that are not covered by an OSHA regulation, it is still essential that you take steps to control it. OSHA can fine for violation of the General Duty clause, which states that employers must provide workers a place of employment free from recognized hazards that cause or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to employees.

Ensuring Safety

Your workers’ safety must be your first priority. It is not only right–it makes economic sense. Reducing claims will also reduce your workers’ compensation insurance premiums. For more resources on loss control programs, contact the insurance professionals at [B_Officialname].

Nanotechnology - November 2016

A hot topic today in the manufacturing industry is nanotechnology, which is the control of matter on a molecular scale between one and 100 nanometers. This intricate methodology involves processing tiny materials to produce nanoparticles or nanomaterials. To give a measure as to how small the building blocks are in these materials, a nanometer is about 50,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair and 10 times smaller than the size of a typical, single germ.

Today, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) reports that new consumer products manufactured using nanotechnology are coming on the market at the rate of about three or four per week. Nanoparticles are already used in paints, car parts, eyeglasses, cosmetics, tennis racquets and clothing, and their use is expected to increase in the near future.

However, researchers and employers are not without doubts about this revolutionary technology. Concerns about the impact of nanomaterials and nanoparticles on the environment and on workers’ and consumers’ health have surfaced in the past five years.

Nanotechnology Hazards in the Workplace

The biggest risk in using nanotechnology in the production of materials is that nanoparticles are so small that they can assume different physical, electrical or magnetic properties than they normally would as larger particles. According to the American Society of Safety Engineers, nanoparticles also have a greater ratio of surface area to mass, and thus they have a higher level of reactivity, combustibility and absorption capacity.

The concern in all these areas is that when ingested, inhaled or even exposed to skin, scientists are not sure how the tiny particles will react with the body systems. What is known is that if they get into the body in any way, the particles are small enough to permeate through tissue. Some evidence suggests that nanoparticles in the body create free oxygen radicals, which are atoms, molecules or ions with unpaired electrons and an open shell configuration. These particles are more likely to bond in unwanted side reactions, leading to cell damage and possibly cancer.

Situations that present significant (and potentially very harmful) exposures to your employees include:

  • Working with nanomaterials without proper protection
  • Pouring or mixing nanomaterials
  • Working with nanomaterials when there is a high degree of agitation, like in extreme heat
  • Generating nanoparticles in the gas phase
  • Handling nanoparticles that are powders
  • Maintenance of equipment used to produce or fabricate nanomaterials
  • Cleaning of any dust collection systems.

Protect Your Employees

Researchers are also unsure if the current standards of ventilation and filtration systems will be 100 percent effective when working with nanoparticles because of their extremely small size. Because of the tremendous usefulness and prevalence of nanotechnology, combined with scientists’ uncertainty of its effects, many compare this development to asbestos and the government control of its use in the 1980s. The European Union’s Occupational Health and Safety agency issued a report citing nanoparticles as the number one emerging risk to workers. So what can your business do to protect workers from harm?

  • Require special protective clothing for your employees. Research indicates that nanoparticles can probably penetrate traditional knit clothing. Ironically, clothing weaved using nanotechnology to prevent the entrance of minute particles could prove to be the most effective.
  • Require all employees to wear eye protection even when not working directly with nanoparticles or nanomaterials. The particles tend to behave like gasses, settling more slowly than other particles and dispersing widely while also re-suspending easily.
  • Restrict consumption of food and drinks to non-work areas. Nanoparticles could be just as harmful if ingested as if they are inhaled due to their ability to permeate through organs and into the bloodstream.
  • Provide shower and locker room facilities for all employees, and require workers to shower and change clothing when leaving their work area. Be active in preventing the spread of nanoparticles outside the workplace.
  • Educate your employees. Give them the latest information on nanotechnology news and trends so they are aware of the dangers and are sure to use extra precautions.
  • Reduce unnecessary exposure. Limit the number of employees working with or around nanoparticles by using safe handling procedures or a closed system when working with high volumes of nanoparticles.

Looking Ahead

Nanotechnology could be a huge opportunity for growth in your industry. The American Society of Safety Engineers predicts that by 2019, 50 percent of all products produced will be influenced by nanotechnology, which will provide jobs for more than 1 million workers. In the future, nanotechnology will likely give rise to items that help prevent risk or danger in the workplace, such as noise absorption materials, fire retardants, advanced ventilation control and quick, efficient cleanup of pollutants and hazards.

However, the future could also hold health problems for workers exposed to nanotechnology, and lawsuits for companies who did not do enough to protect employees. Because the health hazards are so uncertain, you should create your safety and protective policies on the side of extra caution to protect both your employees and your company.

Safety Standards for Cleanrooms - October 2016

The use of cleanrooms is commonly required for manufacturers of sensitive electronic equipment, pharmaceuticals, sterile medical devices and in any other critical manufacturing environment where the contaminants present in outside air could destroy the product’s functionality.

Though cleanrooms are critical parts of the manufacturing environments in which they are used, they are surprisingly unregulated by the U.S. government. In fact, the only federal standard that regulated cleanrooms was canceled in 2001, though manufacturers still widely use the standard as a guideline. It is important to keep in mind that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does have Quality Systems Regulations in place that require manufacturers to use structures that ensure their products meet provisions, and that the business follows good manufacturing practices; however, this does not specifically address cleanroom conditions.

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO), of which the United States is a member, covers the classification of air purity in cleanrooms, and specifies the requirements for testing and monitoring cleanrooms to prove compliance. But from an employer’s perspective, it is not ISO 14644-1 and ISO 14644-2 standards that should determine how to treat your cleanroom facility; rather, it makes the most business sense for you to treat your cleanroom with the utmost care to ensure that the facility stays up to specifications.

What Does Clean Mean?

Individual subsets of industries set their own standards for just how “clean” companies’ cleanrooms must be. For example, integrated circuit manufacturers must operate in a cleanroom of no more than ISO 4, which does not allow any particles greater than 5 micro-meters in size, or one-thousandth of a millimeter. Depending on the type of manufacturing that is performed at your workplace, your ISO rating can vary. Check your industry cleanroom standards to determine the proper ISO rating.

Standards aside, a cleanroom is only useful if it is maintained properly. Many employers are unaware of the fact that a particle 200 times smaller than the width of a human hair can cause a major contamination disaster in a cleanroom. Contamination will not only cost your company because of expensive downtime while the problem is fixed, but it will also result in increased product costs. For example, many electronic products produced in a contaminated cleanroom will not function properly and will result in product recall, while medical devices manufactured in a contaminated cleanroom will not meet FDA regulations.

Preventing Contamination

Building a cleanroom properly is the first step to saving money in the long run, since it is much easier to eliminate the possibility of contamination as the facility is being built. Removing contamination after the fact is not only extremely difficult, but also enormously costly in both time and money. It is important to warn your employees that contamination can come from many unexpected sources, including the following:

  • Other elements of the building or facility that hold the cleanroom, including walls, floors, ceilings, paint, coatings and air conditioning debris
  • Equipment and supplies, such as loose particles from friction, vibrations, brooms, mops, items brought into the cleanroom and cleanroom debris
  • Microorganisms, like viruses, bacteria and fungus
  • People are often the largest source of contamination. This can come from skin flakes and oil, hair, saliva, cosmetics or perfume, and clothing debris like lint and fibers. However, it can also come simply from peoples’ presence; a motionless person, standing or seated, generates 100,000 0.3 micron-sized particles each minute, and a person walking at a swift pace will generate 10,000,000 particles per minute.

Ensuring that the facility meets the accurate air quality standards starts with requiring employees to wear the proper equipment while inside the cleanroom.

Take Precautions

To lower your cleanroom’s risk of contamination, take the following precautions:

  • Warn employees about the danger to the company in bringing personal items—such as wallets and phones—out while in the cleanroom.
  • Encourage employees to make as subtle and slow of movements as possible while in the cleanroom.
  • Check periodically for leakages in the shell enclosing the cleanroom that separates the clean air from the rest of the building.
  • Monitor the cleanroom closely during construction.
  • Regularly measure and test the cleanroom to ensure it is running properly.

Remember that following these guidelines could save your company hundreds of thousands of dollars in lost product and in downtime by lessening your risk for cleanroom contamination.

Protecting Your Hands from Injury - September 2016

Ways to avoid ergonomic injury to your hands

When working in manufacturing, your hands are involved in almost every task you perform, making them highly susceptible to chronic injuries. Yet, workers rarely make an effort to protect them against ergonomic hazards, and suffer later because of it! In fact, these injuries account for many hours of lost work and millions in workers’ compensation claims and medical bills.

What Causes Injuries?

Ergonomic hazards that trigger injuries to the hands, wrists and fingers include repetitive motions, placing too much stress on body parts and excessive twisting. To combat injuries, specifically those from motions causing ergonomic problems, consider the following.

Precautions

  • Alternate between different activities throughout the day to vary your body movements.
  • Concentrate on cutting down on unnecessary movements whenever possible.
  • Arrange your workstation so that tools are within easy reach.
  • Adjust the angle of your work surface to keep your wrists straight.
  • Try to keep your hands and wrists in a neutral position (similar to when shaking hands). This limits the strain on your muscles and tendons, and reduces the temptation to flex or bend at the wrist.
  • Give your elbows and wrists a rest periodically throughout the day.
  • Avoid muscle fatigue by shifting work between your two hands and by varying your routines.
  • Stretch periodically throughout the day to keep your muscles loose.
  • Use tools that have smooth or padded handles. These add-ons will provide additional comfort and will lessen the risk of pinching. Also, look for tools that are designed to keep your wrists straight and are long enough so that they extend across your palm.
  • Watch out for wire cutters or pliers that spread your hands too far. The distance between your hands and fingers should only be approximately four to five inches (for an average-sized hand).
  • Select gripping tools such as hammers that have a handle diameter of no more than two inches to avoid straining to grip the tool.
  • Use power tools that allow your middle finger or thumb to control the trigger as opposed to the index finger. This will allow your index finger to balance the tool without having to also control the trigger.
  • Avoid using tools that give off excessive vibrations. This can cause circulation damage, pinched nerves and stressed tendons. If you must work with these types of tools, wear insulated gloves to absorb some of the vibrations.

Machine Safeguarding Basics - August 2016

Introduction

Machine guards may not always seem like the most convenient part of your job, but they are a necessity in our workplace. Guards are designed to protect you from the many dangerous moving parts throughout the manufacturing floor. In order to keep all our workers safe, it is our policy that machine guards are always used properly and are never tampered with or removed.

What Should Be Guarded

Any machine part, function or process that may cause injury should have a machine guard.

Where Mechanical Hazards Occur

Potentially hazardous moving parts on machines fall into three basic categories:

  • Point of operation: Where the work is actually performed. This is probably the largest hazard area and where the more sophisticated machine safeguarding methods will be used.
  • Power transmission apparatus: All components of the mechanical system that transmit energy (power) to the part of the machine performing the work. These components include flywheels, pulleys, belts, connecting rods, couplings, cams, spindles, chains, cranks and gears.
  • Other moving parts: All other parts of the machine that move while the machine is working. This can include reciprocating, rotating and transverse moving parts.

Hazardous Motions and Actions

A wide variety of mechanical motions and actions may present hazards to you while operating a machine. These can include the movement of rotating members, reciprocating arms, moving belts, meshing gears, cutting teeth and any parts that impact or shear. These different types of hazardous mechanical motions and actions are basic to nearly all machines, and recognizing them is the first step toward protecting yourself from the danger they present. Familiarize yourself with the hazardous motions and actions on any machine you are operating or working near, so that you can avoid injury.

  • Motions: Rotating motion can be dangerous; even smooth, slowly rotating shafts can grip ·         clothing and simple skin contact with any moving parts can cause severe injury. Collars, couplings, cams, clutches, flywheels, shaft ends, spindles, meshing gears and horizontal or vertical shafting are examples of common rotating mechanisms that can be hazardous. The danger increases when projections such as set screws, bolts, nicks, abrasions and projecting keys are exposed on rotating parts.
  • Machine Actions: Machine actions are dangerous due to the amount of force generated at the point of operation where stock is inserted, held and withdrawn by hand. Specific machine actions include punching actions, such as blanking, drawing or stamping metal or other materials; shearing actions, such as knife operations; and bending actions, most commonly performed on power presses, press brakes and tubing benders.

Requirements for Safeguards

What must a safeguard do to protect workers against mechanical hazards? Regardless of the hazard, there are several goals all machine safeguards have in common. They are:
  • Prevent contact: The safeguard must prevent hands, arms and any other part of a worker's body from making contact with dangerous moving parts.
  • Remain secure: Guards and devices should be made of durable material that will withstand the conditions of normal use. They must be firmly secured to the machine.
  • Create no new hazards: A safeguard defeats its own purpose if it creates a hazard of its own such as a shear point, a jagged edge or an unfinished surface, which can cause a laceration. Having to ”work around” a machine safeguard isn’t helpful.
  • Create no interference: Safeguards that significantly impede the ability to do work are not helpful safeguards. Safeguards should protect workers but not prevent them from operating a piece of machinery properly.
  • Allow safe lubrication: Safeguards should allow for the safe lubrication of machines without the need to completely dismantle the guarding system.

Types of Machine Safeguards

Safeguarding a machine is not always with a physical barrier. Here is a list of the various types of machine safeguards used today: 

  • Barrier guards provide a physical shield against machine hazards. They can be metal, metal-mesh, Plexiglas or other types of durable materials. Sometimes barrier guards are interlocked so they stop the machine when the guard is opened.
  • Two-hand trip devices keep the hands out of the point of operation by requiring both hands to activate the machine function.
  • Presence-sensing devices (light curtains) sense when the operator is getting too close the point of operation and automatically stop the machine. These are very effective.
  • Restraining devices, such as pullback devices, restrain the operator’s hands from going into the point of operation during machine motion. Other types of restraining devices do not allow the operator’s hands in the point of operation at any time.

Machine Operators

All machine operators should be familiar with the machine they are using, the machine safeguarding methods, emergency stop buttons and switches, and how to safely perform routine maintenance functions such as clearing jams or making other incidental adjustments. 

You should be able to identify the various types of machine safeguarding methods incorporated into the machine you are using. It may be a combination of light curtains, two-hand trip devices and barrier guards. Regardless of the type, machine operators must be familiar with the types of machine safeguards, how to use those machine safeguards and how to make sure they are functioning properly.

Prior to starting work, inspect the machine to make sure all machine safeguards are attached and functioning properly. Machines should not be used if the machine safeguards are not in place or not functioning.

Machine operators must also consider their own personal effects when operating machinery. Long hair, loose-fitting clothing and hanging jewelry can get caught in machine operations and cause serious injury. Always tie back long hair and avoid wearing clothing or jewelry that could get entangled in a machine.

Put a Stop to Pinch Point Injuries - July 2016

Pinch point hazards are abundant in a manufacturing environment and can be found on many types of equipment including metal-forming machines, power presses, conveyors, robotic machines, powered rollers, assembling machines, plastic molding equipment, printing presses, powered benders, press brakes, power transmission equipment, powered doors, covers and hatches.

It is a common misconception that pinch injuries cannot be serious. In fact, pinch point injuries can be deadly, and they are one of the most common types of accidents in the manufacturing industry.

To reduce your risk of pinch point injuries at work, consider the following safety recommendations.

  • Before beginning your shift or when working with new equipment, identify potential pinch point hazards. Pay special attention to equipment that moves and could come into contact with fixed objects. In this type of work, some of the most common causes of pinch point injuries are:

- Feedrollers and rollers
- Revolving barrels, containers or drums
- Belts and pulleys
- Blades of fans used for cooling
- Gears, sprockets, shafting and chain drives
- Extractors, parts washers and tumblers

  • Be extremely cautious when placing your hands, fingers or feet between two objects. If you are within a pinch point, consider alternative ways to get the task done. If there is no other way to complete the task, make sure that all moveable parts are immobilized before continuing to work.
  • Do not operate machinery without the proper guarding equipment in place. If you need to perform repairs or adjustments to the guards themselves, replace them before using the machinery again.
  • Never use your feet to brace, force or chock objects.
  • Wear appropriate gloves for the task at hand – ill-fitting gloves may be an additional hazard as they can get caught in a machine.
  • Follow all lockout/tagout procedures.
  • Do not wear jewelry or loose clothing, and always tie long hair back. These items can get caught in machines.
  • Know how to turn off equipment immediately in case of an emergency. 
  • If you spot an unguarded pinch point, report the situation to your supervisor or manager immediately. 

 

Learn How to Handle Chemical Spills - June 2016

Working with chemicals on the manufacturing floor puts all employees at serious risk for injuries due to explosions. For this reason, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires worksites where hazardous chemicals are used to have an emergency action plan (EAP). [C_Officialname] takes this requirement seriously, as employee safety in the workplace is our top priority.

The EAP describes the procedures to follow during an emergency, such as a chemical spill, leak or explosion, including:

  • Who to notify
  • Who is in charge and who else has responsibilities in responding to the incident
  • Who is responsible for each task
  • How to evacuate the site

OSHA also requires all employees to be trained in EAP procedures, so that everyone is prepared in the event of an emergency. Notify your supervisor if you have not yet had training in EAP procedures or if you would like a refresher.

Prevention

The first priority when working with chemicals is to try and prevent a spill, leak or explosion. You can contribute to that goal by:

  • Knowing and understanding the chemicals you’re working with, including any hazards—refer to the appropriate Safety Data Sheet (SDS) or ask questions if you are unsure
  • Following all safety precautions and wear proper personal protective gear
  • Helping to make sure all chemicals are properly labeled in their container

When an Incident Occurs

To determine if a chemical spill, leak or explosion is hazardous or requires special cleanup procedures:

  • Identify the chemical(s) involved.
  • Refer to the SDS for any chemical involved to find out how flammable and/or reactive it is, what protective equipment is needed and spill cleanup procedures.
  • For chemicals resulting in a hazardous fire or explosion, refer to the SDS also for firefighting instructions.

Emergency Procedures

In the event of a chemical spill, leak or explosion, be sure to:

  • Immediately notify your supervisor.
  • Notify other workers on the floor.
  • Activate emergency alarms.
  • Call 911.
  • Keep people out of the area.
  • Leave the area if the spill cannot be readily contained, or if it presents an immediate danger to life or health.
  • Follow the evacuation rules in the EAP.
  • Leave cleanup to trained personnel, such as a Hazardous Materials team.

Do not try to:

  • Rescue or help injured people unless you are sure you will be safe
  • Clean up a spill yourself, except where permitted or required by site rules and the EAP

OSHA requires these safety measures, and so do we. It is our hope that an accident like this never happens, but all employees should be prepared in case it does. Make sure you learn these precautions and follow them if you ever must respond to a hazardous chemical spill, leak or explosion, to help keep yourself and your co-workers safe.

The Basics of Intellectual Property - May 2016

Understanding the complexities of intellectual property is key for technology companies because a majority of their market position is based on innovations and expertise. Intellectual property refers to the intangible assets of a business, including patents, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets. These assets are often the most valuable and least understood assets of a corporation. This article is intended to provide a basic understanding of these complex assets.

Patents

What is a patent? 

  • A patent is the legal protection granted by the federal government to an inventor to encourage progress and prevent others from benefiting from the invention.
  • There are three types of patents recognized by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO): utility, design and plant. Utility is the most common and includes any new and useful process, machine, article of manufacture, or composition of matter. In order to obtain any of the three patent types, the inventor must demonstrate that the invention is novel and non-obvious. In addition, to obtain a utility patent, an inventor must also demonstrate utility of some sort. 

What does patent protection provide? 

  • Patent protection involves the right to exclude others from making, using or selling anything that would fall under the claims of the issued patent. The duration of the patent protection depends on the type of patent. Utility and plant patents have a life of 20 years from the date of filing, where design patents have a life of 14 years from issuance. Occasionally, these lengths are extended, but not for more than five years.

What factors are considered when determining whether a patent has been infringed? 

  • Determining whether a patent has been infringed entails the court examining the claims of the patent and comparing them to the accused device or process. This may be more complex in situations where the claims terms are unclear or ambiguous. The court can determine that infringement exists even if the accused device or process isn’t identical to the original. If the device performs substantially the same function in largely the same way to produce substantially identical results, it is likely that a court would find infringement. 

What are my rights if someone infringes my patent? 

  • You may file suit in a federal district court to enforce your patent against an infringer. If you are successful, there are many possible outcomes. Courts look to compensate the patent holder with damages for lost profits and/or punitive damages for willful infringement.

Copyrights

What is a copyright? 

  • A copyright is the legal protection granted by the government to an author. In the case of works created by an employee during the course of his or her job, the copyright would belong to the employer. No publication or registration with the Copyright Office is required to secure a copyright, though there are advantages to registering. Copyrights are secured automatically when a work is created, such as when the source code of a software program is completed. A notice of copyright is also not required, though it can be beneficial.
  • To be granted the most protections for your copyright, the material has to be disclosed to the U.S. copyright office, allowing others to see the material. While a copyright protects material as it is written, someone could gain an understanding of the material and use ideas or parts from the material to create something of their own.

What can be protected by a copyright? 

The Copyright Act sets types of authorship to be protected. A non-exhaustive list of material that may be protected under copyright includes:

  • Computer programs
  • Books, magazines and advertising copy
  • Songs, dramatic works and dance routines
  • Paintings and designs
  • Motion pictures
  • Sound recordings (CD, cassette, digital audio tapes, MP3 files)

The protection afforded by the Copyright Act is a sliding scale based upon creativity. The more creative a work is, the more protection it is afforded. It is important to note that it is not ideas, but expressions of ideas that are protected by the law. 

What does copyright protection provide? 

  • Copyright ownership grants the following specific rights in the work: reproduction, modification, publication, performance and public display of the work. These rights can be limited by the doctrines of fair use and first sale. The length of protection for newly filed registrations is the life of the author plus 75 years. If it is a corporately owned copyright, then the copyright exists for 90 years from the date of publication. 

What factors are considered when determining whether a copyright has been infringed?

  • A copyright can be infringed by violating any of the rights granted: reproduction, modification, publication, performance and public display of the work. A copyright owner only needs to prove that the infringement occurred; it is not necessary to show that the infringement was intentional or malicious.
  • However, “fair use” is allowed without the author’s permission if an individual uses a limited portion of a copyrighted work for purposes such as criticism or research. This standard is not clear-cut and is left to the discretion of the court.

What are my rights if someone infringes my copyright? 

  • If you have a federally registered copyright, you have the right to enforce your copyright by filing suit in a federal district court. A federally registered copyright grants the holder more rights than the common law possession of an unregistered copyright. If the copyright was not federally registered prior to infringement, you can file for a federal registration prior to pursuing a legal action in federal court.

Trademarks

What is a trademark? 

  • A trademark serves to identify a single source for goods or services, membership in an organization or approval from a quality assurance program. It can be a product name, a brand, a slogan, a color and even a scent. Federal law allows for the protection of trademarks. 

What does trademark protection provide? 

  • The scope of the protection can vary widely, depending on the strength and fame of a mark. For instance, many brand names are famous marks that are very strong. The length of time that a mark can be protected is indefinite because it is based upon use, but federal registrations have an initial term of 10 years. A mark may be renewed in successive 10-year increments as long as the mark is still in use. 

What factors are considered when determining whether a trademark has been infringed?

  • Whether a trademark has been infringed is most often dependent upon whether a likelihood of confusion has been found. In determining whether there is a likelihood of confusion, courts generally look at factors like the defendant’s intent, similarity in marketing channels, the overall impression of the two marks in question and the similarity of goods or services associated with the marks.

What are my rights if someone infringes my federally registered trademark? 

  • You have the right to bring an infringement action in a federal district court. After a finding of infringement, the court determines the appropriate remedies for the trademark holder. These can include an injunction to stop the infringing or diluting use, damages to cover defendant’s profits or losses sustained by plaintiff and punitive damages in cases of bad faith. 

Are there applicable state or common laws? 

  • There are state registries for trademarks, with rights and registration varying by state. Consult an attorney licensed in your state for specific state requirements and benefits.

Trade Secrets

What is a trade secret? 

  • A trade secret is any proprietary information that serves as advantage over competitors and is kept secret. It is broadly defined and can range from software coding to a customer list.

What factors are considered when determining whether a trade secret has been infringed?

  • The owner of the trade secret must prove that the alleged confidential information provided a competitive advantage, the information was maintained in secrecy and the information was improperly acquired or disclosed by the defendant.

What are my rights if someone infringes my trade secret? 

  • A lawsuit may be brought under federal or state law depending upon the circumstances. Under the Economic Espionage Act, individuals can be fined up to $500,000 and corporations can be fined up to $5,000,000 plus possible jail time for trade secret infringement. Several states have also enacted laws making it a crime to infringe upon or steal a trade secret.

Are there applicable state or common laws? 

  • Many states also have their own trade secret legislation which should be considered when developing your policy.

Protect Your Business

Patents, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets may be integral parts of your business. It is vital that you understand the laws associated with these concepts to protect your intellectual property. You also need to ensure that your behavior does not infringe on someone else’s intellectual property. This piece is not exhaustive and should be read as an overview. For more information, consult legal counsel.

Eliminate Electronic Distractions from the Workplace - April 2016

It is a generally accepted fact that the use of cellphones and other electronic devices while driving present a distraction that greatly increases the chance for an accident. Unfortunately, what too many people fail to take into consideration is how distracting these devices can be in other situations.

In an industry of moving machinery and equipment, manufacturing workers are especially susceptible to workplace injury. They need to be alert at all times, as even the smallest slip-up can cause an accident. Not only can an inattentive worker injure themselves but their carelessness can also endanger others. In this type of work environment it is easy to see the importance of minimizing the potential distractions faced by your employees.

Cellphones

Whether it’s talking or texting, cellphone use takes the employees focus off their task. While handheld use compounds the problem, even using a hands-free device does not allow for full concentration. Studies indicate that the act of talking on the phone is distracting regardless of whether the user is physically holding the device or not. It is the conversation itself that takes an employee’s focus off their work and surroundings.

While some employees may need to use a work cellphone as part of their job, it is best to place restrictions on when and where those phones can be used. Personal cellphones should not be allowed on the manufacturing floor at all, as even the momentary distraction of a call or message alert can potentially lead to an accident. Employees should not have phones on their person during work hours unless they are on a break from their duties and are in a designated break area.

Mp3 and Other Music Players

There are a variety of audio cues that alert workers to what is happening around them. Unfortunately, when an employee’s hearing is impaired by music, a shout from a coworker, an odd sound from a malfunctioning machine or the backup alarm on a truck or forklift can be easily missed. Besides limiting the worker’s ability to hear what is going on around them, there is also the potential distraction of operating the device. When adjusting volume or switching songs, not only is the employee’s hearing impaired, but they are also visually engaged with the device. This greatly decreases the worker’s awareness of his or her surroundings.

Potential Hearing Loss

In a manufacturing setting it is not uncommon for there to be high noise levels that require proper ear protection to prevent hearing loss. The use of cellphones, hands-free devices and headphones can interfere with an employee’s proper use of protective equipment. Even though such devices may cover the ear, most are not meant to provide hearing protection.

In fact, in noisy situations, devices that administer sound directly into the ear increase dangerous levels of noise exposure as employees turn up volume levels to drown out background noise. The combination of these noise exposures greatly increases the rate of hearing loss, which in turn increases the chance for occupational hearing loss claims.

Electronics Usage Policy

Attentive, focused employees are essential to creating a safe work environment, which is why it is important to eliminate possible distractions. Prohibiting employee use of personal electronic devices can aid in reducing workplace accidents. To clearly state your company’s rules on when and where usage is restricted, institute an electronics usage policy. Once instituted, train your employees in the policy requirements and make sure restrictions are diligently enforced. 

Common Health and Safety Hazards for Printers - March 2016

The printing industry cannot afford any slowdowns in productivity, customers require accuracy, quality and timeliness. Even a single typo or small delay can threaten the legitimacy of your customers’ printed products. Being late by just one day may have disastrous consequences, since printed products often adhere to rigid printing schedules.

This unwavering devotion to speed and promptness makes the printing industry very efficient, but also particularly susceptible to overlooking its numerous health and safety hazards. The most common types of hazards in the printing industry are manual handling, slips and trips, and machinery accidents.

As an employer in the printing industry, you are responsible for preventing accidents and managing overall employee health and safety. Do not sacrifice health and safety for expediency—you can have both. Read through the following common health and safety hazards for printers and find out how you can protect your employees.

Manual Handling

Manual handling activities—such as lifting, carrying, pushing and pulling—cause the majority of injuries in the printing industry. All employers should avoid manual handling when possible; assess and limit the risks from manual handling, and provide training to avoid injuries.

After identifying and assessing manual handling risks, work to reduce those risks. Do this by providing your employees with mechanical handling aids such as aerial lifts, pile turners, reel conveyors and hand trucks. You can also reduce manual handling risks by reorganizing tasks to decrease the size and weight of everyday loads.

Finally, train employees on appropriate handling techniques, the correct use of handling aids, how manual handling causes injury and how to identify unsafe practices.

Slips and Trips

The potential for slips and trips in printing firms is widespread, especially in production areas. Accidents are usually caused by poor housekeeping, shoddy maintenance and inclement weather. You can limit slip and trip hazards in your workplace by doing the following:

• Keep walkways well-marked and clear of pallets and other obstructions.

• Identify specific places for pallet loading and unloading.

• Provide suitable containers for disposing of strapping, wrapping and paper.

• Designate storage areas for equipment such as hand trucks and forklifts.

• Avoid trailing cables, and provide cable covers for temporary arrangements.

• Repair potholes in floor surfaces.

• Prevent oil leaks by maintaining equipment.

• Clean up spills immediately.

Machinery

Most printing machinery accidents occur during an unsafe intervention with an operating press. Common causes of accidents include being drawn into in-running nips of rollers, contact with dangerous moving parts and entanglement with rotating parts. Take the steps listed below to prevent machinery accidents:

• Choose the right machine for the job.

• Train employees on the proper use of machine safeguards.

• Maintain machine guards.

• Establish a lockout/tagout program for shutting down machines and equipment for cleaning, repairing or emergencies.

• Prohibit employees from wearing loose clothing, jewelry or untied long hair when operating machines.

• Have machines routinely inspected by a qualified technician.

Fires and Explosions

Printing firms are often full of flammable materials that create significant fire and explosion risks. Specific risks in printing include paper fires in infrared dryers and UV curing units, explosions in dryers due to high levels of blanket wash solvent vapor, and fire and explosion due to flammable inks.

You should assess the fire and explosion risks from any dangerous substances used or produced in your workplace. Consider the hazardous properties of each substance, how your employees use that substance and the likelihood of creating and igniting an explosive atmosphere.

Lessen the risk of fire and its ability to spread with the following tips:

• Segregate printing, storage and other areas.

• Ensure the mixing of solvent-based inks is carried out only in dedicated fire-resistant rooms.

• Install fire-detection and extinguishing systems.

• Provide dampers to isolate solvent recovery units in the event of a fire.

Chemicals

The printing industry relies on a host of potentially harmful chemicals. The substances your business needs, such as inks, lacquers, adhesives and cleaning solvents, could cause illness. Employees may breathe in damaging vapors and mists or absorb dangerous chemicals through their skin.

Due to the variety of chemicals they handle, many workers in the printing industry experience dermatitis, or skin inflammation. Dermatitis may develop on their hands, wrists, forearms and elbows. Prevent dermatitis by identifying the materials that could cause it and encouraging employees to avoid them. Provide gloves, cleansers, cream and training and check for signs of dermatitis, such as dryness, itching and redness.

You can also promote a safe workplace by heeding this advice about harmful chemicals:

• Identify which harmful substances may be present in the workplace.

• Consider how workers might expose and consequently harm themselves.

• Assess the measures you currently have in place to prevent chemical hazards.

• Provide information and training to workers.

Noise

Noise, one of the most insidious health and safety hazards in the printing industry, can cause permanent hearing loss. Often, workers do not perceive that their hearing is being damaged until some hearing loss has already happened. Some effects of excessive noise exposure are more obvious, like tinnitus, which is a ringing or whooshing sound in the ears.

If you cannot eliminate noise, lower it as much as possible. Daily noise exposure should be 85 decibels at most, and preferably 80 decibels or less.

Noise can be an easy hazard to avoid—just follow these suggestions:

• Alter machines or processes to produce less noise.

• Enclose noisy machines with acoustic enclosures or hoods.

• Separate noisy machines and processes.

• Implement a system for equipment maintenance which muffles noise.

• Provide refuges for employees to escape exposure.

• Offer hearing protection that stifles sound to below 85 decibels.

Never Stop Improving

While this list is not exhaustive, it is a good start to identifying and combating the hazards in your printing firm. Be sure to create a proper risk assessment for your specific business and implement controls to safeguard your employees. Regularly review your risk assessment to ensure it is still appropriate and never stop improving. Rely on the insurance professionals at CMR Risk & Insurance Services, Inc. for more ways to overcome hazards in the printing industry.

Effects of Air Quality on the Floor - February 2016

According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), indoor air has higher levels of pollutants than outdoor air, and consequently can pose environmentally related health problems. This has increasingly become a concern for business owners, as indoor air quality (IAQ) has a direct impact on the health, comfort, well-being and productivity of employees. Furthermore, a report from the EPA to Congress reveals that when businesses improve indoor air quality, they can also increase productivity, decrease the number of days that employees miss work and save money on medical care.

IAQ has been a hot topic since the 1970s, as employee health complaints became more prevalent for two main reasons. First, to reduce heating and cooling costs, businesses made their structures airtight with insulation and sealed windows. Consequently, the amount of outside air introduced into buildings was greatly reduced. Second, more chemical products, supplies, equipment and pesticides began to be used in the work environment, increasing employee exposure to poor air environments. In some cases, employees were subjected to excessive tobacco smoke, which can cause secondhand smoke health problems in addition to sick building syndrome (SBS) or building-related illnesses (BRI).

What is SBS?

A workplace is characterized as having problems with SBS when a substantial number of its occupants experience health and comfort troubles that can be related to working indoors. The reported symptoms do not follow the patterns of any particular illnesses, are difficult to trace to any specific source and relief from the symptoms tends to occur when leaving the facility. Employees may experience headaches, eye, nose and throat irritation, dry or itchy skin, fatigue, dizziness, nausea and loss of concentration.

Indoor air quality, inasmuch as it has a direct impact on health, has become a serious concern for business owners.

What is BRI?

A workplace is characterized with BRI when a relatively small number of employees experience health problems. The symptoms associated with BRIs are similar to those of SBS and are often accompanied by physical signs identified by a physician or laboratory test. Sufferers of BRI may also experience upper respiratory irritation, skin irritations, chills, fever, cough, chest tightness, congestion, sneezing, runny nose, muscle aches and pneumonia. These symptoms may be caused by the following conditions brought on by indoor air pollutants: asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, multiple chemical sensitivity and Legionnaires’ disease. Employees may not experience relief from symptoms when leaving the facility.

What Causes These Diseases?

The IAQ problems that may cause SBS and/or BRI may include the following:

  • Lack of fresh air

  o  If insufficient fresh air is introduced into occupied areas of the workplace, the environment can become stagnant and odors and contaminants can accumulate. This is the primary cause of SBS.

  • Poorly maintained or poorly operated ventilation systems
  • Mechanical ventilation systems must be properly maintained and operated based on the original design or prescribed procedures. If systems are neglected, their ability to provide adequate IAQ decreases. For instance, when systems are missing or have overloaded filters, this can cause excess dust, pollen and cigarette smoke to enter occupied spaces, and can cause health problems.

  o  Disruption of air circulation throughout occupied spaces

  • The quantity of air depends on the effectiveness of air distribution. If it is disrupted, blocked or otherwise cannot reach occupied areas, air can become stagnant. Walls, dropped ceiling tiles and other obstacles can divert the supply of air in occupied spaces.

  o  Poorly regulated temperature and relative humidity levels

  • If the temperature and/or relative humidity levels are too high or too low, employees may experience discomfort, loss of concentration, eye and throat irritation, dry skin, sinus headaches, nosebleeds and an inability to wear contact lenses. If relative humidity levels are too high, microbial contamination can build up and cause BRI.

  o  Indoor and outdoor sources of contamination

  • Chemical emissions can contribution to BRI and SBS from cigarette smoke, machinery, insulation, pesticides, wood products, synthetic plastics, new carpeting, glues, furnishings, paints, cleaning agents, boiler emissions, roof renovations and contaminated air from exhaust stacks. Indoor contaminants may include radon, ozone, formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia, carbon monoxide, particulates, nitrogen and sulfur oxides and asbestos.

Improve Air Quality

To determine if your facility has poor IAQ, follow standard investigative procedures including:

  • Conduct employee interviews to obtain pertinent information regarding the number of employees affected, location and position of affected employees in the building, and employee symptoms.
  • Review building operations and maintenance procedures to determine when and what types of chemicals are being used during cleaning, waxing, painting, gluing, roofing operations, renovation, etc.
  • Conduct a walk-through inspection to evaluate possible sources that may contribute to IAQ complaints.
  • Inspect the HVAC system to determine if it is working properly and is in good condition.
  • Review building blueprints of the ductwork and ventilation system to determine if it is adequately designed.
  • Conduct air sampling to detect specific contaminants and their levels.

Correcting and Preventing Problems

  1. Ensure Adequate Fresh Air Supply

  o  Create a preventive maintenance schedule and follow it according to manufacturer’s recommendations or by accepted practices to ensure that ventilation systems are properly checked, maintained and documented. Preventive maintenance schedules should include inspections of equipment by assuring the following:

  • Outdoor air supply dampers are opened as they were originally designed and remain unobstructed.
  • Fan belts are properly operating, in good condition and replaced when necessary.
  • Equipment parts are lubricated.
  • Motors are properly functioning and in good operating condition.
  • Diffusers are open and unobstructed for adequate air mixing.
  • The system is properly balanced.
  • Filters are properly installed and replaced at specific intervals.
  • Damaged components are replaced or repaired.
  • Condensate pans are properly drained and are in good condition.

  o  To achieve acceptable IAQ, outdoor air quality must be adequately distributed at a minimum rate of 20 cubic feet per minute (cfm) per person OR the concentration of all known contaminants should be restricted to specified acceptable levels as identified in the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) “Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality” Standard. For more information, visit www.ashrae.org. 

  o  To determine if the ventilation system is effectively providing adequate fresh air, carbon dioxide levels should be measured. ASHRAE sets the standard of 1,000 ppm of carbon dioxide as the maximum recommended level for acceptable IAQ.

  o  If possible, gauges should be installed to provide information on air volumes delivered by supply and return fans.

  o  A sufficient supply of outside air should be provided to all occupied spaces. If this is not the case, buildings can be at a negative pressure, allowing untreated air and/or contaminants to infiltrate from the outside. To determine if this problem is prevalent, observe the direction of air movement at windows and doors.

  o  Ventilation system filters should have moderate efficiency ratings of 60 percent or more as measured by ASHRAE atmospheric dust spot tests and be of an extended surface type. To determine if the filters have the appropriate efficiency rating, check with the manufacturer. Pre-filters should be used before air passes through higher efficiency filters.

  o  Avoid overcrowding employees or patrons in one area or another, and make sure that the proper amount of outdoor air is provided based on the number of occupants.

2. Eliminate or Control Known and Potential Sources of Contaminants

  o  To control chemical contamination:

  • Use local exhaust ventilation to capture and remove contaminates generated by specific processes, when appropriate. Local exhaust does not re-circulate the contaminated air; instead it directly exhausts the contaminant outdoors.
  • Check to be sure that your HVAC fresh air intakes or other building vents or openings are not located in close proximity to potential sources of contamination.
  • Eliminate or reduce cigarette smoke. Smoking restrictions or designated smoking areas should be considered, and the air from these areas should not be re-circulated to non-smoking areas of the building.

  o  To control Microbial Contamination:

  • Detect and repair all areas where water collection or leakage has occurred.
  • Maintain relative humidity levels at less than 60 percent in all occupied areas and low-velocity plenums. Cooling coils should be run at a low temperature to properly dehumidify conditioned air in summer months.
  • Due to dust or dirt accumulation, additional filtration downstream may be necessary before air is introduced into occupied spaces.
  • Heat exchange components and drain pans should be accessible so maintenance personnel can easily inspect and clean them. Access panels and doors should be installed, when needed.
  • Clean and disinfect non-porous surfaces where moisture can collect.

CMR Risk & Insurance Services, Inc. knows how much you depend on your employees, and can help you ensure their health by taking measures to prevent employee illness. Contact us for more information on health insurance and how to maintain a safe and healthy workplace.

 

Preparing for a Product Recall - January 2016

From vehicles to pharmaceuticals to food products, what might risk managers learn from mass media coverage of product recalls? For manufacturers of all types of consumer goods, they might serve as a wake-up call to the potential impact of a product recall event and a lesson in what should be done immediately to prepare for potential exposures. According to data from the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), there are an average of 35,000 consumer product-related injuries every year.

Costs from a product recall or contamination can easily become many millions of dollars. In addition to the physical expense of a recall, falling sales due to poor consumer confidence, brand rehabilitation expenses and potential shareholder lawsuits may also contribute to long-term losses. 

Despite recall frequency and the potential for extraordinary costs, most companies don’t adequately plan, prepare and practice for—or buy insurance to protect against—product recall events. In addition to proper insurance coverages, careful planning is essential in managing the risk of a recall.

Types of Exposure

There are two categories of exposure for a company faced with a product recall incident: first-party operational losses to the company and third-party liability losses to injured persons.

Unlike third-party losses, first-party loss is often overlooked. In addition to initial recall expenses, the potential long-term losses from the damage to a company’s reputation and loss of sales may continue for months or even years. Since these losses can be catastrophic, this article focuses on ways to manage first-party incident exposures.

Misconceptions and Considerations

It is a common misconception that product recall is covered under a general or product liability policy. Those coverages do a good job of covering bodily injury and property damage but generally exclude contamination and recall events. The addition of a product contamination or product recall policy protects your bottom line by covering the direct costs of recall, but transferring the risk is only one part of closing the recall exposure gap. 



Despite recall frequency and the potential for extraordinary costs, most manufacturing companies do not adequately plan and buy insurance to protect against product recall events.


Regardless of size, every company offering consumer products—and sometimes those that offer products intended for commercial and industrial use—should establish solid product risk management policies and procedures for handling a recall or contamination event.

Understanding Three Basic Perils

It’s helpful to understand the three basic contamination 

perils when designing a risk management program that provides the best protection for the least cost.

  • Malicious tampering (intentional contamination) is prone to publicity, so it may seem common. In reality, malicious tampering is rare, but when it strikes, it tends to be a very severe loss. Managing this risk exposure can be difficult, as motives vary widely.
  • Accidental contamination is an unintentional error in the manufacturing, packaging or storage of a product. This includes mislabeling of ingredients, contamination by a foreign object or chemical, etc. This peril is the most common, but the majority of incidents are discovered prior to shipment. Therefore, these events receive very little publicity. As opposed to malicious tampering, this peril has very high frequency but usually relatively low severity. While most accidental contaminations are small events, historically the largest losses have been due to accidental contaminations.
  • Product extortion is the most difficult peril to characterize. Its frequency is between that of malicious tampering and accidental contamination. Its severity, however, is more difficult to quantify. Most extortions are amateurish hoaxes but may evolve into outright tampering cases, which can be very costly.

Pyramid Defense

Think of your risk management plan as a pyramid that outlines a series of defenses to counter the threat of a product incident. The first line of defense is the base of the pyramid. What actions can be taken to eliminate the majority of threats, such as unwanted bacteria, disgruntled employees, malfunctioning equipment, sloppy suppliers or lax testing? Put that in the first tier (bottom) of the pyramid. Any threats that escape being eliminated by the first tier should be addressed by the second, and so on. As the pyramid rises, the plan becomes more specific and more effective at isolating and eliminating product incident threats.

  • Tier 1 - Total commitment to quality. The good news is that most of what can be done to protect against a product incident occurs in the area of product quality assurance and control. Commitment to turning out the highest quality products day after day is the best countermeasure to the threat of a product recall crisis. This dedication to quality should be evident in every aspect of business, from manufacturing to marketing. The logic is simple: If the product can’t leave the plant in a contaminated state and the packaging is designed so that tampering is difficult to accomplish or obvious once done, the odds of experiencing a major incident are considerably reduced.
  • Tier 2 - Prepare with a contingency plan. It is essential to have a plan in place before a crisis arises. Research indicates that the first 48 hours of a major product incident are more crucial than the next 48 days. Every company should have a workable product recall and crisis management plan.
  • Tier 3 - Focus with training. Contingency plans aren’t of much use if they haven’t been tested and honed under simulated conditions to ensure the plan works.
  • Tier 4 - Respond with expertise and decisiveness. Even with a good team and a good plan, there is a place in a recall crisis for professional consultants.
  • Tier 5 - Transfer risk where possible. Even the best companies who are prepared for a recall can suffer substantial financial losses. In spite of all precautions, a large-scale public recall may cost millions of dollars in extra expense, lost profits, lost inventory, lost shelf space and lost market share. If it comes to this, the last line of defense is a solid product recall insurance program—one that indemnifies for the host of extra expenses and losses in revenue that come with product withdrawals. 

Product Recall Insurance

Insurance for first-party losses caused by product tampering and contamination incidents are broadly labeled as product recall insurance. Product recall policies help to cover the additional costs of a recall, including product loss, costs to withdraw the product from market, product disposal, product testing, overtime wages and crisis management—costs that can be devastating because they arise at a time when a company's revenues are typically hardest hit.

There are several coverage forms, each designed to isolate some component of first-party product exposure. Work with CMR Risk & Insurance Services, Inc. to ensure your product recall policy provides indemnity for:

  • Recall expense. This out-of-pocket expense is associated with executing a large-scale product withdrawal. It includes costs like extra temporary employees, overtime, public safety messages, special testing and handling, destruction and disposal costs and crisis management and/or PR consulting fees.
  • Replacement cost. As the name implies, this is the cost of replacing any product that had to be destroyed. This includes the cost of materials, labor and overhead directly associated with producing the product.
  • Lost profits. This indemnifies the insured for profits which would have been earned on the withdrawn products and also for profits that would have been earned on future product sales but which were not earned because of resultant future sales declines. This is usually limited to a specified time period.
  • Brand rehabilitation expense. Most underwriters will also indemnify the insured for necessary rehabilitation of the recalled product’s consumer image. This includes costs like extra advertising, extra expense to rush a new product to market and special promotions to rebuild public trust in the manufacturer and its products.

In addition to transferring risk, thorough risk management practices are essential to minimize the exposure and the cost of a recall event. The product recall insurance marketplace is highly specialized. Our team of experts can help secure the coverage you need and collaborate with you develop a business contingency plan that meets your specific needs. Contact us today at (619) 297-3160.